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Alessandro Volta



  

   Birth certificate

Como 18.February.1745-Como 5.March.1827


   
       
       
Biography
  

   

In 1763 he is student of the Jesuits, in the Benzi seminary, the Chierico Giulio Cesar Gattoni invested large sums in order to favor the searches and the study of the young person,   already promised genius.   Time preferred to become self-taught as soon as yields account of its not common resources. In 1775 it invents elettroforo (the elementary electrostatic generator from influence-- not for rubbing--)   (1),    introducing it to   Royal Society of London, and its reputation becomes international. It becomes physical teacher in the Athenaeum of Pavia in 1780.   In 1784 it comes   name   chancellor of the Athenaeum Pavia, member of the Academy of the Entrusted ones of Pavia, Academic of sciences to Mantova and member of   Royal Society of London.      It was striven in order to modernize the university scientific search of its time.   In 1791 it is published from Galvani “De viribus electricitatis in motu musculari commentarius” where was introduced a theory on the animal electricity. Twenty March 1800 introduces to Joseph Banks, secretary of the Royal Society   l " organ artificial electrical worker " or “electromotive apparatus” or “apparatus to column”, is be a matter of the Battery of Time. This invention becomes a point of departure for all the history of the electricity. The French scientists, follow us of    Galvani   they name this electromotive apparatus with “battery of Galvani” producing irritation from Time, which succeeded to demonstrate the originality   of own invention making to rename the apparatus battery of Time. Seven November   1801   Time   it read its memory on the Electromotive ones to the presence of Napoleon, which immediately proposed it a medal of gold for the Italian scientist.  Napoleon name it senator and the Austrians successively name it “director of the philosophical studies”. From    1819    the student withdrew itself to private life,     passing its time between   Como and Camnago (Co) where possessed one villa of campaign. In the 1823 wife it communicates that the scientist has saved itself from an infarct. In to a 1827 it forces it fever to bed from which it would not be up, five March of the same year dies to Como.





Alexander Time was born to Como 18 February of 1745 from Filippo and Daisy De' Conti Inzaghi. The family Time belonged to the Lombardi aristocracy and had much tightened ties with the ecclesiastical atmosphere. After the dead women of the father   the education of Alexander   it is   entrusted to the uncle Alexander. After to have attended -   to 13 years - the school of the Jesuits to Como,     it is transferred to the Benzi seminary of Como,   to the age of sixteen years.       Spaces are the attempts, from       father Gerolamo Bonesi, master of Alexander, to start it on the priesthood.  Equally useless the efforts of the uncle are revealed Alexander for him undertaking the legal studies.       The cultural interests of Time are delineated clearly to eighteen years, when -   after to have studied the works of Van Musschenbroek, of Nollet and Giambattista Beccaria -   it establishes an intense one   correspondence   to epistolary with the French scientist and its compatriot.  Around   1765 Volt to attends the house of Giulio Cesar Gattoni (1741-1809),    where it has the possibility to use of the physical cabinet that the Gattoni had constructed between 1764 and 1765.   The interest for the electro logy is stimulated from the searches of the friend   Gattoni    thanks to which, according to Giambattista Giovio,    Time “acquired great part of its European name”.  In the 1769 public Time the dissertation “De Hindu electrici you attractiva ignis ac phaenomenis pendentibus”, and in   the 1771 memory to epistolare “Novus ac simplicissimus electricorum tentaminum apparatus”. In 1774, behind interest of the Firmian, director) of the public schools of Como is name resisting (;   the successive year, becomes physical university professor experiences them in the gymnasium of Como.



With the support of Firmian and Kaunitz it undertakes,   in 1777,    its first scientific travel in Switzerland, Alsace and Savoia. During this travel it knows some between more celebrates naturalists, like H.B.De Saussure and J. Senebier. Behind proposal of the general governor of the Hasburg Lombardy       (many times over cited Carl Giuseppe Conte of Firmian), it comes conferred to Time, in the November of 1778, the Physical chair experiences them of the University of Pavia.   In   1771   the Emperor   Maria Teresa   she had in fact launched one   “Slowly of direction,  discipline and economy  of the University of Pavia " and, in 1773, a “scientific Plan”.  The performance of such programs   it implied   the strengthening of    scientific instructions of the athenaeum Pavia who, in the intentions of the government of Vienna, had to become the “school center them of the State”. Thanks to the diplomatic ability of conte the Firmian and to the collaboration of Spallanzani,   Boscovich and of the same one   Time, the innovation of the scientific knowledge taken start in Lombardy.  In 1780,   the scientist comasco os to Florence in order to visit the Regal Physical Museum and Natural History and in order to lead naturalistic surveyings.   In the September of 1781 he visits Switzerland, the Alsace, the centroccidentale Germany, Holland,   Belgium and, towards the December end,   it reaches Paris.  Stays for four months working here with Laplace and Lavoisier. In 1782 it reaches London, where it is stopped until to June. Successively, in 1784, one os, with to the colleague Antonio Shoe, to Vienna and Berlin. The year after will be name chancellor of the University of Pavia. The searches completed, during years eighty, in electro logy,   meteorology electrical worker,   calorimetry,   geology and chemistry of the gas,   they concur to assert itself like one of the most illustrious scientists than European level.


22 November 1794 spouse Peculiar Maria Teresa,   from which it will have three sons: Zanino, Flaminio and Luigi; second, the Flaminio, die to single eighteen years. After the publication of the written one of Galvani “De viribus electricitatis in motu musculari commentarius” (1791),    Time, than in 1794 had received from the Royal Society the Medal of Gold of Copley for its scientific contributions, publishes on   “Annals of chemistry and natural history” - review founded and directed from the chemical pavian Luigi Brugnatelli - a memory entitled “New memory on the electricity”, addressed to the Piedmontese physicist Vassalli.  Three years after it will give to the press three tests of character to epistolary,     addressed to the German physicist Gren, from the title it "Sul galvanismo".





20 March of 1800,   Time communicates the president of the Royal Society,   sir Joseph Banks, the invention of the Battery. In the June of the same year, Napoleon -   to which Time had rendered homage in 1796 -     reaffirmation the scientist comasco physical university professor experiences them near the Athenaeum pavese. In the 1801 one os to Paris, accompanied from the Brugnatelli, in order to illustrate the searches had lead that it to the invention of the Battery.


To the presence of Napoleon, first consul, reads the “Memory on the identity of the fluid electrical worker with the galvanic fluid”, for which a gold medal will be assigned to it. In spite of the enormous one happening, the modesty of the illustrious scientist comasco does not come upsotten. To this end, pack-saddles to read this that Time writes to the wife 7 November of 1801: “in the middle of many things, that they must certainly makes it appeal to me, I     to sign not to believe me more than those that are;  and to the life churned from a vain Gloria I prefer the tranquility and sweetness of the domestic life” (Epistolario, vol.IV, p.86). In the same year member is name of consults of Lion.


In the 1805 Napoleon ago to assign a annual pension and ago to name Knight of the Legion of Honor.  In 1806 he becomes Knight of the Italian Real Order of the Iron Crown; in 1809, senator of the Reign of Italy, and at last, in 1810, conte of the Reign of Italy. From   1801   to   1812   Time will cover assignments publics:  General Prime Minister of the department of the Lario; President of the Water Magistrate; reviser of the press and member of the Office Centers them of the press freedom; Electoral Prime Minister of the department of the Lario, from last.


Although the fall of the napoleonico regime and the consequent restoration
Austrian,  the government of Vienna calls it to Pavia with the assignment of director of the philosophical studies of the athenaeum paves. In the 1819 Time he withdraws himself to private life in its city born them. After a short disease, March 1827 to the age of 82 years will be extinguished in Como 5.


Note: 1)  from   "l'energia elettrica