Biographical notes
Scientists index
Ewald Jürgen von Kleist William Watson




Pieter van Musschenbroek


  (Leiden Netherlands 14.March.1692  -  Leiden  19.September.1761 )
H.van der Mij- Jan e Pieter van
Musschenbroek -Leida Museum Boerhaave.
The siblings researchers represented with i
they scientific instruments.

1745 Condenser  



Physicist, to which the merit of the invention of the “bottle of Leyda” is given, Leyda is the locality where worked exactly Musschenbroek. The invention has happened independently from the invention of Kleist In 1746 wrote to Réamour to have had a experience with a “jolt”, be a matter of electric discharge to high upgrades them, lacks ulterior documentations.


Bottle of Leida
Condenser electrical worker of classic form, constituted from a bottle of glass back wide, whose inside is covered from a metallic armor on the bottom and the walls (excluded the forming throttling the neck), connected with a finished metallic stem from a little ball, while the external part is covered from a second metallic armor, till the height of that inner one. The sheets can be made of tinfoil, and in such   case cannot be removed because breaker   or   at least   they would be become deformed, making to vary the characteristics   of the apparatus; or of a metallic sheet of sufficient thickness, for being able to remove it and to introduce in place without to alter   the form   and   therefore   the characteristics   of the
apparatus. The operation   of   condenser is based on the principle    that the electric charges of   contrary sign is gained and they make equilibrium; therefore, placing the little ball of the stem to contact with a electrostatic machine that    holding in hand the bottle, so that the external armor is to earth,    the inner armor charge of electricity of a sign and that external of contrary sign,   that they make mutual equilibrium. If now, for means of an arc arrester, we put to contact the two armors, an electric discharge is had, whose intensity depends from the surface of the armors and the dielectric constant of the interposed insulator.

It can be demonstrated   with the Bottle of Leida   demountable that the electric charges are not on the armors, but on the two faces of the dielectric,   in this case on the glass:  in facts removing the armors and putting them to contact, that the door to the same one upgrades them,    and then replacing them to place in the bottle, the discharge is had equally, because the electrical shock of contrary sign, gaining itself,   they stretch to approach itself most possible, and therefore to prepare on the two faces of the dielectric, which does not allow a greater approach.   The metallic armors do not have therefore other function that   that   of   to allow to the electric charges of   to distribute itself    on the surface of the dielectric with which they are to contact.